Premier rapport aux autorités de Suiyang 4021
Ceci est le texte du "rapport Ã chaud" fait Ã la demande des autorités de Suiyang.Il est en anglais, tel qu'écrit et restitué lors de la traditionelle réunion de clÃ´ture de fin d'expé.Il est orienté autour de l'idée de crÃ¨er un parc national des grottes de Shuanghe.Cette région est en effet en recherche de solution de développement, et un record est une bonne occasion de rappeler au gouvernement central qu'ils existent !Le suggestion que nous avons faites sont peut-Ãªtre discutables... Ã vos commentaires !(promis, j'essayerais de déposer une traduction en FranÃ§ais).
Introduction :This is a short presentation quickly written about Shuanghe cave system and its potentiality as a National cave park.
I Shuanghe cave area :
- History :
First modern exploration by GIMR and a Japanese team in 1988.From 1988 to 1991, three more explorations by GIMR. The network develop 26 Km.2001, join exploration by GIMR and PSCJA. The network develop 50 Km in 8 caves : Hejiaodong (1 104 m), Dafengdong (1 500 m), Zhenjiaodong (1 871 m), Longtanzishuidong (2 235 m), Shalindong (3 408 m), Tuanduiwoshuidong (9 709 m), Pixiaodong (12 117 m) andHongzao-Mahuangdong (18 103 m).2003, join exploration by GIMR and PSCJA. This trip obtained the NationalExpedition status from FFS (Fédération Française de Spéléologie = French caving federation) for year 2003. That means French caving federation considered it as the most important for this year. 70 402 m are now surveid close to Shanghe cave. The longest is Shuanghe cave (54 356 m, 8 entrances ), it is the longest in China. The second is Pixiaodong ( 13 704 m, 4 entrances) and Dafengdong (2 442 m, 3 entrances). 11 smaller or further caves over increase to 78 128m the whole surveid cave around Wenquan.
- About 2003 caving trip :
There were 11 french cavers, including 3 scientist in karstology, hydrogeology, geomorphology and Biology. The working rate was hard with over 700 hours underground in 57 missions. We first tryed to connect all the caves, then to extend Longtanzi part, then to have a wider overview.We re-surveid all parts explored by Japanese team to be sure of the cave data. This job is not finished and we now have to finalise the drawing and cave description, this will be a long work to do in France.
- Géologic et géographic context.
The karstic zone generally develops in limestone and dolomites of middle-upper Cambrian and lower Ordovician at altitudes from 670 m to 1 650 m. It has a fluvio-karstic functioning, by concentrated absorption, using an impermeable residual coverage of Ordovician sandstone and shale which enabled the construction of a net of valleys step by step arrested downstream by karstic absorption.The area overviewed is 130 Km2, it !!s two valleys
- global description of Shuanghe cave :In two words, complexity and diversity.Entrances are generally big galleries, but there are also big collapses and dolines.Some caves are absolutely dry even in wet seasons, most of them were exploited in former ages as nitrates mines. They are often easy, safe and comfortable to visit.Some parts can be explored only in very dry season when water level is low. These parts are muddy and wild. The rivers can form underground canyons and big lakes.We now about 25 small permanent rivers organised in three collectors, but in wet seasons, many bigger rivers are going through the caves.They are also vertical parts, at the entrance or far inside the cave.These can only be visited using ropes and special equipment.The cave genesis is extremely complex, we need for that to explore more.
0The current fonctionning is partly known. The huge Longtanzi cave is drained to Shuangheshuidong resurgence. Some small rivers directly exit the network in Hejiaodong and under Shalingdong. Many rivers can be found and we don't know for each one where they go and where they come from. We think Dayuquan is the main resurgence for north-east part which owns the biggest rivers.
- potentialities for future explorations :We are not sure to be able to connect Pixiaodong to Shuanghedong, but this is to attempt.Many branches are to explore, they are more and more difficult to reach but we have great hope to reach an over 100 Km cave.
- other observations :
We can stress that the local people have respect the cave until now.They are clean and nearly nothing has been broken.
The outside site is also specially beautiful and preserved and many different kind of birds can be observed on the banks of shuanghe river.
II Arguments for National cave park.
1) need for multipurpose scientific studies :
- relations between human and cave through the ages :Many nitrates mines were exploited in the past, but some footprints can be found in very far places of the network. We picked up some samples to try to evaluate the age of these footprints. Some can be very old. The story of men in cave is specially interesting to study there because a big network is connected.- underground biology :
Many animals can be observed in the cave. Some live only underground.At the moment, no unknown specimen has been identified, but the network is so wide and own so various kind of places that it can have some. It is necessary to make specific research for this. But our own study show the cave fish population may be extremely weak and takingonly one can make it disappear, so, this kind of research has to be extremely controlled.
The cave system prove to be extremely complex. By observing the current water circulation, we can approach the understanding of older parts genesis. It is highly interesting and important to study this complexity.
Cave exploration :
The survey and cave description are the basic document out of which other studies can be performed. Exploration are to carry on to build cave genesis hypothesis and enlighten all other studies.
2) need for cave and landscape protection :If no specific organisation, many very interesting things can be lost forever (old footprints, cave fish, gypsum speleothems, wild animals, landscape...).
3) Business exploitation of caves :
these caves are not likely to become mass-visited as, for instance, Dajidong in Zhijin. They cannot bring a short term development. But they really can enable a soft and long term development by organising tourist tours with guides. The network own many possibilities for this.
Some tour for extern landscape, some for speleothem, some using boats, some only by foot, and some with single rope technic. That means a very wide range of people can be interested by Shuanghe caves. The national park can provide a framework to organise it without destroying the cave.
4) Developing caving in China :
Today, they are very few cavers in China. With the general development of the country, we can be sure their will be more and more. But caving can be dangerous and requires a specific formation. Shuanghe caves provide the perfect environment to organise a real caving school.
5) Shuanghe cave is the longest cave in China, it belongs to human and natural patrimony.As a comparison, Mammouth cave in kentucky is the longest in USA, it illonger, but the network organisation there is very less complex. They made a national park out of it over 50 years ago and this was a great success.
III what could be Shuanghe cave national park :
1) dimensions :
It is difficult to give now the exactly necessary extension of the park.
The minimum is a rectangle about 100 Km2, but this can be 200 Km2 to !! all interesting phenomena.
2) Aims :
Give a framework for scientific studies, economic development, caving formation in the aim of cave protection.
3) Tracks :
- at first, the park have a formation and information mission, that means teaching local people what the cave system constist of. It is fundamental to give local people motivation for environment and cave protection.
Until now, the site was well preserved by them, but more and more people will come here and they must be ready to welcome and watch them at the same time. This suppose the comunication between park organisers and local people must be exellent.
- The park have to balance the strengths between the differents domains (scientific, protection, exploration, economic...).
- A biological survey is necessary for wild animals in the valley.
- the rules of behaviour concerning the parc area must be written clearly and shared by all the actors.
- the accomodation for visitors must be located on the border and not inside the park.
- guides must have a excellent knowledge about caving and about the network. They have to enable visits in good safety conditions and to prevent environment degradation.
- The guides must know how karst works to avoid accident with floods in wet season. in Pixiaodong is to close.
- The access to caves have to be free, caves must be open. If the knowlege is well shared, people will naturally ask for guides because of the complexity of the cave.
- Most of the cave are self-protected because very complex or frequently washed by flood. These part are to be prefered for caving tour.
- in former mine-cave, there is no need for specific protection because the original landscape has already disapear long ago. These part are to be prefered for caving tour also.
- The wildest parts of the cave are protected because it is impossible to go without guide.
4) To make Shuanghe caves well-known
- Conferences based on a Pedagogic movie to do on Shuanghe cave.
As a conclusion :
Since 1986, this was our 12th caving trip in China and we have surveyed over 300 caves. We can say only two of them can be compared with Shuanghe cave in term of complexity and diversity, and they are much smaller.At our first exploration in this system, in Hongzaozidong year 2001, we guessed we entered an extremly special kind of cave.Today, we consider we have not yet seen half of the whole system. Our next target now is to increase the survey to over 100 Km.We are very satisfied of the positive impact our job can have for Wenquan, Suiyang and Guizhou.
We wish great success to the shuanghe cave national park project.We thanks a lot Mr Yuanjing for his warm welcome and his great involvement in Shuanghe cave's destiny.
Publié le : Mercredi 16 avril 2003 @ 21:10:14